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Quantum Computers Explained – What are Qubits

Quantum Computers Explained – What are Qubits

Quantum physics in and of itself is no simple subject. Explaining how a quantum computer works is no different. But this video’s here by popular demand. I hope you enjoy. 

Trusty white board here. In order to understand quantum computing, we’ve gotta run through binary computing. 1s and 0s. Only two possible outcomes. We have transistors in on and off states to control the flow of voltage; basically closing and opening circuits like valves control the flow of water through pipes. It’s always easier to picture circuits in this way.

If the circuit is open, then no pathway exists and current (or, in this case, water) does not flow. But if the circuit is closed, the pathway is completed and water flows unhindered. Transistors are these “valves” or “on/off” switches. For binary systems, like the computers and phones you’re using to watch this video, binary transistors open and close to indicate 1 and 0. I explain it a bit more in this video right here. For now, just know that, if threshold voltage is not reached, a gap in the current is created indicating a “0 for FALSE.” Whether it’s a 1 or 0 really depends on the algorithm being used. They’ll always be opposites. For our examples in this video, 1 = True = closed circuit, and 0 = False = open circuit.

This is how all data in modern computing systems is transmitted and processed. And you can imagine how billions of transistors opening and closing at billions of times per second can amount to some serious data computation. But quantum computers make PCs like this one behind me seem like basic calculators. They aren’t binary systems per se, although we often use 1 and 0 to denote the range of values quantum bits, or “qubits” can denote. 

In a nutshell, “quantum,” in the term “quantum mechanics” defines the energy levels of small particles. And thanks to research done by Werner Heisenberg, Serge Haroche, and David Wineland, we now know that it also describes how an electron can be in two places at once. This is from where quantum computing is derived. 

Instead of 1s and 0s, regular bits, qubits can represent an infinite range of values between 1 and 0. And unlike the classical counterpart, qubits can be physical objects like electrons and photons. Imagine a compass with one pole denoted 1 and the other pole denoted 0. The needle of the compass can swing wherever it wants within the system – but it can never point to anything higher than one and lower than zero. Instead, it can point to areas in-between the two poles and represent the likelihood of either becoming a 1 or 0 once the qubit is processed. This area in-between is what’s known as “superposition.” 

When we read and interpret classical three-bit binary data streams, we understand that eight outcomes are possible. Since there are two possible states and 3 bits, 2 raised to n (where n is 3) = 8. So eight possible outcomes here; all probabilities of which must equal 1. So there’s a 100% chance that a three-bit binary system will yield one of these values (since they’re the only values possible with three digits and two numbers). 

A quantum three-bit system works a bit different, however. Since each qubit can denote any complex number between 0 and 1, then the sum of the squares of each complex probability must equal 1 for a 100% probability. When we make a measurement of a 3-bit quantum system, the values of the particles in each orientation collapse to a classical state of binary. But the computational power of a three-bit quantum computer far-exceeds that of classical systems. Where binary systems require 2 raised to the power N bits, quantum computers can express the same amount of information in just N qubits. 

For scale, just a 30-bit computer is capable of nearly 10 teraflops of floating point performance. That’s 10 trillion floating operations per second which, in the real world, would require billions of transistors. 

But like I said in this video right here, quantum computers aren’t as practical for every-day users as you might think. Streaming, editing, and even gaming won’t benefit much from quantum PCs in the current state; and they get extremely hot. They have to be cryogenically cooled. They must also be shielded from the outside world, since even the smallest magnetic disturbances can offset a qubit’s reading and promote decoherence. They’re extremely large, expensive, and difficult to maintain, and are more-or-less used for large probability and research operations today. 

The viability of these quantum computers will change as our technology and infrastructure does, but I expect we’ll still be relying on the binary system for many years to come. They just work. We don’t have to worry about quantum decoherence, overheating, and insane shielding. But much like early binary computers, quantum computers today are very large. Who knows? In fifty years, we may have shrunken an entire system to the size of this. If we had enough computational qubits in this as we do classical transistors, imagine the potential. 

Net Neutrality Explained. Will Ending it Free the Internet?

Net Neutrality

Share this video and raise awareness about ending Net Neutrality! Net Neutrality Explained. Should the FCC really End Net Neutrality?

 

Many consider Net Neutrality a “political” argument – and I try to stay out of politics on a largely “science-derived” channel. But nothing about it needs to be political. Let me give ya a brief synopsis of what the current Net Neutrality rules dictate, and what this country would look like if the policy was eased back.

In a nutshell, net neutrality refers to our right as occupants of the United States to open and unrestricted networks. In essence, ISPs, or internet service providers, are lawfully bound to provide unrestricted access to all websites deemed lawful in the eyes of the government… basically everything that doesn’t violate U.S. or international law, the rights of others, or the rights of corporations. ISPs are not allowed to choke or cut off your bandwidth to any legal website.

So if WOW, under my current service plan, decided to ignore net neutrality rules, they could reduce my 500mbps download speed to, say, 50mbps, for all competitor sites in my area. We have two ISPs here in Panama City – Xfinity and WOW – so WOW could decide to limit my bandwidth to Xfinity-affiliated websites; basically anything related to NBC. They could even terminate my access to these sites and TV shows if Net Neutrality suddenly vanished. 

In 2015, the FCC (Federal Communications Commission) classified broadband providers like Verizon, Comcast, CenturyLink, and AT&T as Title II Common Carriers. This means that, in the eyes of common law, ISPs are simply the mediums of exchange – the carriers of information – between the infrastructure (because nobody owns the internet) and the consumer. And it makes sense. Think of it like a mail delivery system. If UPS was assumed to now practice “Mail Neutrality,” they’d deliver packages equally and without bias to those in the same price groups. And they do. Obviously, we have the option to pay more for two-day or overnight shipping, but all Mail Neutrality requires is that those packages shipped within each price bracket be delivered without bias toward particular neighborhoods. The same is true for ISPs under Net Neutrality. I pay about $80/month for cable and 500 megs down. I have friends who pay $60 for cable and 100 megs down. I expect a 500mbps cap when I download content, and my friend expects 100. Simple as that. But what we don’t expect is to be throttled when we visit sites deemed “less important” or “conflicting” in the eyes of our provider. 

Net Neutrality Vote

One reason Net Neutrality is such a hot-button topic has to do with the limited number of ISPs in given areas of the United States. If you’re watching up to this point in the video, I want you to comment down below with your available internet service providers, and then take a look at a few others. You’ll find that quite a number of people have access to only one or two providers. Without pricing strategies under a competitive model, these monopolies can essentially charge whatever they want for cable. This scene in South Park is has never been more accurate. 

If Net Neutrality was repealed or eased back, things online may look very different. And here’s the scarier part: They may look completely different depending on where you live. We rely on open and free access to information. Untampered and uncensored. But if things continue down this road, we may have access to only a couple of news media outlets, local stations, and websites. And since most people are bound to their current ISP, they won’t have a choice about what they can or can’t see. 

Ajit Pai FCC 

I’ll leave you with this: Mr. Ajit Pai, chairman of the FCC – spearheading the net neutrality repeal – was previously a Verizon lawyer. Verizon is the second largest internet service provider in the United States. Now I’ve never been a proponent of big government intervention. This touches politics and I’ll stop there, but I’m 100% against Mr. Pai’s argument that repealing Net Neutrality “puts engineers and entrepreneurs, instead of bureaucrats and lawyers, back in charge of the internet.” Despite whatever grip the FCC has on the internet, Net Neutrality has been a good thing. Aren’t you glad certain sites you visit aren’t throttled? What if your local cable company decided to throttle Netflix? Or Hulu? Or… YouTube? If this legislation passes, expect it. 

Net Neutrality Explained. Will Ending it Free the Internet?

Net Neutrality Explained. Will Ending it Free the Internet?

Net Neutrality Explained. Many consider Net Neutrality a “political” argument – and I try to stay out of politics on a largely “science-derived” channel. But nothing about it needs to be political. Let me give ya a brief synopsis of what the current Net Neutrality rules dictate, and what this country would look like if the policy was eased back.

In a nutshell, net neutrality refers to our right as occupants of the United States to open and unrestricted networks. In essence, ISPs, or internet service providers, are lawfully bound to provide unrestricted access to all websites deemed lawful in the eyes of the government… basically everything that doesn’t violate U.S. or international law, the rights of others, or the rights of corporations. ISPs are not allowed to choke or cut off your bandwidth to any legal website.

So if WOW, under my current service plan, decided to ignore net neutrality rules, they could reduce my 500mbps download speed to, say, 50mbps, for all competitor sites in my area. We have two ISPs here in Panama City – Xfinity and WOW – so WOW could decide to limit my bandwidth to Xfinity-affiliated websites; basically anything related to NBC. They could even terminate my access to these sites and TV shows if Net Neutrality suddenly vanished. 

In 2015, the FCC (Federal Communications Commission) classified broadband providers like Verizon, Comcast, CenturyLink, and AT&T as Title II Common Carriers. This means that, in the eyes of common law, ISPs are simply the mediums of exchange – the carriers of information – between the infrastructure (because nobody owns the internet) and the consumer. And it makes sense. Think of it like a mail delivery system. If UPS was assumed to now practice “Mail Neutrality,” they’d deliver packages equally and without bias to those in the same price groups. And they do. Obviously, we have the option to pay more for two-day or overnight shipping, but all Mail Neutrality requires is that those packages shipped within each price bracket be delivered without bias toward particular neighborhoods. The same is true for ISPs under Net Neutrality. I pay about $80/month for cable and 500 megs down. I have friends who pay $60 for cable and 100 megs down. I expect a 500mbps cap when I download content, and my friend expects 100. Simple as that. Net Neutrality Explained But what we don’t expect is to be throttled when we visit sites deemed “less important” or “conflicting” in the eyes of our provider. 

One reason Net Neutrality is such a hot-button topic has to do with the limited number of ISPs in given areas of the United States. If you’re watching up to this point in the video, I want you to comment down below with your available internet service providers, and then take a look at a few others. You’ll find that quite a number of people have access to only one or two providers. Without pricing strategies under a competitive model, these monopolies can essentially charge whatever they want for cable. This scene in South Park is has never been more accurate. 

If Net Neutrality was repealed or eased back, things online may look very different. And here’s the scarier part: They may look completely different depending on where you live. We rely on open and free access to information. Untampered and uncensored. But if things continue down this road, we may have access to only a couple of news media outlets, local stations, and websites. And since most people are Net Neutrality Explained bound to their current ISP, they won’t have a choice about what they can or can’t see. 

I’ll leave you with this: Mr. Ajit Pai, chairman of the FCC – spearheading the net neutrality repeal – was previously a Verizon lawyer. Verizon is the second largest internet service provider in the United States. Now I’ve never been a proponent of big government intervention. This touches politics and I’ll stop there, but I’m 100% against Mr. Pai’s argument that repealing Net Neutrality “puts engineers and entrepreneurs, instead of bureaucrats and lawyers, back in charge of the internet.” Despite whatever grip the FCC has on the internet, Net Neutrality has been a good thing. Aren’t you glad certain sites you visit aren’t throttled? What if your local cable company decided to throttle Netflix? Or Hulu? Or… YouTube? If this legislation passes, expect it. Net Neutrality Explained

Net Neutrality Explained. Will Ending it Free the Internet?

Net Neutrality Explained. Will Ending it Free the Internet?

Net Neutrality Explained. Many consider Net Neutrality a “political” argument – and I try to stay out of politics on a largely “science-derived” channel. But nothing about it needs to be political. Let me give ya a brief synopsis of what the current Net Neutrality rules dictate, and what this country would look like if the policy was eased back.

In a nutshell, net neutrality refers to our right as occupants of the United States to open and unrestricted networks. In essence, ISPs, or internet service providers, are lawfully bound to provide unrestricted access to all websites deemed lawful in the eyes of the government… basically everything that doesn’t violate U.S. or international law, the rights of others, or the rights of corporations. ISPs are not allowed to choke or cut off your bandwidth to any legal website.

So if WOW, under my current service plan, decided to ignore net neutrality rules, they could reduce my 500mbps download speed to, say, 50mbps, for all competitor sites in my area. We have two ISPs here in Panama City – Xfinity and WOW – so WOW could decide to limit my bandwidth to Xfinity-affiliated websites; basically anything related to NBC. They could even terminate my access to these sites and TV shows if Net Neutrality suddenly vanished. 

In 2015, the FCC (Federal Communications Commission) classified broadband providers like Verizon, Comcast, CenturyLink, and AT&T as Title II Common Carriers. This means that, in the eyes of common law, ISPs are simply the mediums of exchange – the carriers of information – between the infrastructure (because nobody owns the internet) and the consumer. And it makes sense. Think of it like a mail delivery system. If UPS was assumed to now practice “Mail Neutrality,” they’d deliver packages equally and without bias to those in the same price groups. And they do. Obviously, we have the option to pay more for two-day or overnight shipping, but all Mail Neutrality requires is that those packages shipped within each price bracket be delivered without bias toward particular neighborhoods. The same is true for ISPs under Net Neutrality. I pay about $80/month for cable and 500 megs down. I have friends who pay $60 for cable and 100 megs down. I expect a 500mbps cap when I download content, and my friend expects 100. Simple as that. Net Neutrality Explained But what we don’t expect is to be throttled when we visit sites deemed “less important” or “conflicting” in the eyes of our provider. 

One reason Net Neutrality is such a hot-button topic has to do with the limited number of ISPs in given areas of the United States. If you’re watching up to this point in the video, I want you to comment down below with your available internet service providers, and then take a look at a few others. You’ll find that quite a number of people have access to only one or two providers. Without pricing strategies under a competitive model, these monopolies can essentially charge whatever they want for cable. This scene in South Park is has never been more accurate. 

If Net Neutrality was repealed or eased back, things online may look very different. And here’s the scarier part: They may look completely different depending on where you live. We rely on open and free access to information. Untampered and uncensored. But if things continue down this road, we may have access to only a couple of news media outlets, local stations, and websites. And since most people are Net Neutrality Explained bound to their current ISP, they won’t have a choice about what they can or can’t see. 

I’ll leave you with this: Mr. Ajit Pai, chairman of the FCC – spearheading the net neutrality repeal – was previously a Verizon lawyer. Verizon is the second largest internet service provider in the United States. Now I’ve never been a proponent of big government intervention. This touches politics and I’ll stop there, but I’m 100% against Mr. Pai’s argument that repealing Net Neutrality “puts engineers and entrepreneurs, instead of bureaucrats and lawyers, back in charge of the internet.” Despite whatever grip the FCC has on the internet, Net Neutrality has been a good thing. Aren’t you glad certain sites you visit aren’t throttled? What if your local cable company decided to throttle Netflix? Or Hulu? Or… YouTube? If this legislation passes, expect it. Net Neutrality Explained

Net Neutrality Explained. Will Ending it Free the Internet?

Net Neutrality Explained. Will Ending it Free the Internet?

Net Neutrality Explained. Many consider Net Neutrality a “political” argument – and I try to stay out of politics on a largely “science-derived” channel. But nothing about it needs to be political. Let me give ya a brief synopsis of what the current Net Neutrality rules dictate, and what this country would look like if the policy was eased back.

In a nutshell, net neutrality refers to our right as occupants of the United States to open and unrestricted networks. In essence, ISPs, or internet service providers, are lawfully bound to provide unrestricted access to all websites deemed lawful in the eyes of the government… basically everything that doesn’t violate U.S. or international law, the rights of others, or the rights of corporations. ISPs are not allowed to choke or cut off your bandwidth to any legal website.

So if WOW, under my current service plan, decided to ignore net neutrality rules, they could reduce my 500mbps download speed to, say, 50mbps, for all competitor sites in my area. We have two ISPs here in Panama City – Xfinity and WOW – so WOW could decide to limit my bandwidth to Xfinity-affiliated websites; basically anything related to NBC. They could even terminate my access to these sites and TV shows if Net Neutrality suddenly vanished. 

In 2015, the FCC (Federal Communications Commission) classified broadband providers like Verizon, Comcast, CenturyLink, and AT&T as Title II Common Carriers. This means that, in the eyes of common law, ISPs are simply the mediums of exchange – the carriers of information – between the infrastructure (because nobody owns the internet) and the consumer. And it makes sense. Think of it like a mail delivery system. If UPS was assumed to now practice “Mail Neutrality,” they’d deliver packages equally and without bias to those in the same price groups. And they do. Obviously, we have the option to pay more for two-day or overnight shipping, but all Mail Neutrality requires is that those packages shipped within each price bracket be delivered without bias toward particular neighborhoods. The same is true for ISPs under Net Neutrality. I pay about $80/month for cable and 500 megs down. I have friends who pay $60 for cable and 100 megs down. I expect a 500mbps cap when I download content, and my friend expects 100. Simple as that. Net Neutrality Explained But what we don’t expect is to be throttled when we visit sites deemed “less important” or “conflicting” in the eyes of our provider. 

One reason Net Neutrality is such a hot-button topic has to do with the limited number of ISPs in given areas of the United States. If you’re watching up to this point in the video, I want you to comment down below with your available internet service providers, and then take a look at a few others. You’ll find that quite a number of people have access to only one or two providers. Without pricing strategies under a competitive model, these monopolies can essentially charge whatever they want for cable. This scene in South Park is has never been more accurate. 

If Net Neutrality was repealed or eased back, things online may look very different. And here’s the scarier part: They may look completely different depending on where you live. We rely on open and free access to information. Untampered and uncensored. But if things continue down this road, we may have access to only a couple of news media outlets, local stations, and websites. And since most people are Net Neutrality Explained bound to their current ISP, they won’t have a choice about what they can or can’t see. 

I’ll leave you with this: Mr. Ajit Pai, chairman of the FCC – spearheading the net neutrality repeal – was previously a Verizon lawyer. Verizon is the second largest internet service provider in the United States. Now I’ve never been a proponent of big government intervention. This touches politics and I’ll stop there, but I’m 100% against Mr. Pai’s argument that repealing Net Neutrality “puts engineers and entrepreneurs, instead of bureaucrats and lawyers, back in charge of the internet.” Despite whatever grip the FCC has on the internet, Net Neutrality has been a good thing. Aren’t you glad certain sites you visit aren’t throttled? What if your local cable company decided to throttle Netflix? Or Hulu? Or… YouTube? If this legislation passes, expect it. Net Neutrality Explained

Salazar’s Birthday Livestream | Science Studio After Hours

Salazar's Birthday Livestream | Science Studio After Hours

Salazar’s Birthday Livestream | Science Studio After Hours

Tech Channels include JayzTwoCents, LinusTechTips, BitWit, YesTechCity, and many others. This is a live stream for Greg Salazar’s Birthday. It appears to be alive stream taking place on Saturday, October 28th at 10:00PM CST. This is an automated posting via a watchmon442.

Our systems show that Greg Salazar’s Birthday is in facton the 28th of October and this live stream will be to celebrate his birthday.This information is courtesyofhttps://www.famousbirthdays.com/people/greg-salazar.html

LinusTechTips is another Youtuber that remains the number #1 Technology Youtuber via SocialBlade Technologies.

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